November 14 – World Diabetes Day

On 14 November traditionally marks World Diabetes Day. The initiative is celebrated every year since 1991 under the auspices of the World Health Organization.

In 2006, by resolution 61/225 of the UN day he became officially monitored by the UN.

Selected date is November 14, as of this day was born Frederick Banting, who, along with Charles Best, making epochal discovery of the role of insulin in the treatment of diabetes.

The initiative is marked in over 160 countries worldwide to improve the lifestyle and treatment of people with diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide problem.

Reported increase in the number of people with diabetes, which is associated with increased health care costs for the disease.

According to statistics, every five seconds a person is sick with diabetes, and for years this number is 6 million.

The forecasts of experts is that the number of diabetics will rise to 500 million within a generation – for 20 years.

The incidence of diabetes in Bulgaria is 9%.
Diabetes affects people of all ages.

More and more kids get sick of type 2 diabetes, the predominant until recently only in adults.
Most affected are men and women aged between 35 and 64 years.

50% of people with diabetes do not know they are sick.

If not treated on time and with the right medication, the disease leads to many complications.

1. Prediabet

Prediabetat is a condition associated with impaired fasting glycaemia and / or impaired glucose tolerance.
 A prerequisite for this is the lifestyle and diet of modern man, and a number of risk factors that influence it.

Impaired glucose tolerance is a term used to define blood glucose values ​​between 7 and 11 mmol / l two hours after meals.
 Rate is about 8%, nalbyudava mainly in women and increased with age.

Impaired fasting glycemia is a condition in which there is a high level of blood sugar – by 6.1 and 6,9 mmol / l, measured in the morning fasting, but it is not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

The incidence of both conditions prediabetni is about two times higher than that of diabetes.
Believed to increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

About 25% of people with impaired fasting glycemia and 25-30% of those with impaired glucose tolerance (NPOV) will progress to diabetes, with all the attendant complications.
If adequate measures are taken, 25-40% of individuals with impaired fasting glycemia and 25-30% of those with impaired glucose tolerance will return to normal – ie. normal glycemic and will not be threatened by this disease.
Unfortunately the remaining 35-50% will maintain the state of prediabet.

2. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or the elderly, occurs in more than 90% of all cases of diabetes.
The disease is characterized by insulin resistance and / or relative deficiency of insulin.
 Due to increased blood glucose – hyperglycaemia. Long-term disease is associated with damage to several organs and systems.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs after the age of 40, but may occur earlier.
The disease can go unnoticed for years, often the diagnosis is made after the occurrence of complications from it.

The emergence of type 1 diabetes is usually sudden and dramatic, while symptoms of type 2 diabetes can often be mild or absent.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity, lack of physical activity, age, insulin resistance, family history.

Changes in eating habits and physical activity related to rapid development and urbanization, are associated with a sharp increase in the number of people suffering from diabetes.

Pregnant women who are overweight and have been diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance or a family history of diabetes are at increased risk of developing gestational diabetes.
Presented also are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

 3. Prevention of Diabetes

At present, type 1 diabetes can not be prevented.

Maintaining a healthy weight and physical activity, however, may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.

International Diabetes Federation recommends that all people at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes should be actively sought by screening.

The goal is easy detection of disease through completion of a questionnaire to assess risk factors such as age, waist circumference, family history, state of the cardiovascular system.

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